Mindfulness survey: References


  • Developing the SMS
  • Articles
  • Books



Solloway, S. G. & Dawson, T. L. (2011, April). Measuring mindfulness in the university classroom: Reliability and validity concerns. Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society: 9th Annual International Scientific Conference for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators: Norwood, MA.

Solloway, S. G. & Dawson, T. L. (2010, April). Utilizing Rasch Analysis to compare the psychometric properties of four mindfulness measures and conduct scale revision. Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society: 8th Annual International Scientific Conference for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators: Norwood, MA.

Solloway, S. G., & Fisher, W. P. (2007). Mindfulness in measurement: Reconsidering the measurable in mindfulness practice. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 26, 58-81.

Solloway, S. G., & Fisher, W. P. (2007). Mindfulness practice: A Rasch variable construct innovation. Journal of Applied Measurement, 8(4), 359-372.


Dr. Solloway is using the Rasch Model to develop the SMS. First introduced over 50 years ago, the Rasch model, which is the most stringent of a family of models that are informed by item response theory, gradually has become the "gold standard" in scale development.

If you are interested in learning more about this model, we recommend a visit to the site of the Institute for Objective Measurement (IOM). We also recommend the following chapters and articles:

Bond, T., & Fox, C., (2007). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates http://homesjcu.edu.au/-edtgb/book/].

Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2006). Arbitrary metrics in psychology. American Psychologist, 61(1), 27-41.

Curtis, D. D. (2005). Comparing classical and contemporary analyses and Rasch measurement. In S. Alagumalai, Curtis, D. D., & Hungi, N. (Eds.), Applied Rasch measurement: A book of exemplars (pp. 179-195). Netherlands: Springer.

Hobart, J. D. Cano, S. J., Zajicek, J. P., & Thompson, Al. J. (2007). Rating scales as outcome measures for clinical trials in neurology: problems, solutions, and recommendations. Lancet Neural, 6, 1094-1105.

Iramaneerat, C., Smith, E. V., Jr., Smith, R. M. (2008). An introduction to Rasch measurement. In Best practices in quantitative methods (50-70). Los Angeles: Sage.

Ludlow, L. H., Enterline, S. E., & Cochran-Smith, M. (2008). Learning to teach for social justice-beliefs scale: An application of Rasch measurement principles. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 40, 194-214.

Wilson, M. (2005). Constructing measures: An item response modeling approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.



Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.

Brefcznski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(27), 11483-11488.

Brown, K., & Ryan, R. M.(2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848.

Davidson, R. J., & Lutz, A. (2008). Buddha’s brain: Neuroplasticity and meditation. IEEE Singal Processing, 25(1), 171-174.

Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., Urbanowski, M. A., Harrington, A., Bonus, K., & Sheridan, J. (2003). Alternations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570.

Ekman, P.l, Davidson, R. J., Ricard, M., Wallace, B. A. (2005). Buddhist and psychological perspectives on emotions and well-being, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 59-63.

Lau, M.A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z.V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Sharpiro, S., & Carnody, J. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445-1467.

Lutz, A., Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Johnsone, T., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Voluntary regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: Effects of expertise. PLoSOne, 3(3), e1897. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001897.

Lutz, A., Dunne, J. P., Davidson, R. J. (2005). Meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness: An introduction. Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness, edited by P. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, & E. Thompson.

Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Rawlings, N. B., Ricard, M., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induced high-amplitude gamma synchrony during metal practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 16369-16373.

Lutz, Al, Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 163-169.

Ryback, D. (2006). Self-determination and the neurology of mindfulness. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(4), 474-4934.

Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greishar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwehuis, S., Davis, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Mental training affects use of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5(6), e138 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138.

Solloway, S. G., & Fisher, W. P. (2007). Mindfulness in measurement: Reconsidering the measurable in mindfulness practice. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 26, 58-81.


Austin, J. (2006). Zen-brain reflections. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Austin, J. (1999). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Begley, S. (2007). Train your mind change your brain: How a new science reveals our extraordinary potential to transform ourselves. New York: Ballantine Books.

Doidge, N., (2007). The brain that changes itself: Stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. New York: Penguin.

Goleman, D., & Gurin, J. (Eds). (1993). Mind-body medicine: How to use your mind for better health. New York: Consumer Reports Books.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Coming to our senses: Healing ourselves and the world through mindfulness. New York: Hyperion.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full-catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delta.

Oliver, J. D. (Ed.). (2009). Commit to sit: Tools for cultivating a meditation practice from the pages of Tricycle.

Ratey, J. J. (2008). Spark: The revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain. London: Little Brown & Company.

Schwartz, J. M., & Begley, S. (2003). The mind and the brain: Neuroplasticity and the power of mental force. New York: Harper-Perennial.

Swartz, J. M. & Beyette, B. (1997). Brain lock: Free yourself from obsessive-compulsive behavior. New York: Harper Perennial.

Wallace, B. A. (2006). Contemplative science: Where Buddhism and neuroscience converge. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wallace, B. A. (2006). The attention revolution: Unlocking the power of the focused mind. Someville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Zajonc. A. (2008). Meditation as contemplative inquiry: When knowing becomes love. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Books.